Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel (Great Discoveries)

Author: Rebecca Goldstein

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393242455

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 224

View: 1712

"A gem…An unforgettable account of one of the great moments in the history of human thought." —Steven Pinker Probing the life and work of Kurt Gödel, Incompleteness indelibly portrays the tortured genius whose vision rocked the stability of mathematical reasoning—and brought him to the edge of madness.

Dharma and Communalism

Author: Narendra Mohan

Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan

ISBN: 9390366569

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

View: 8146

Selfishness and arrogance have become so inextricably associated with distortion and misconception of religion that the ordinary person is forgetting the real concept of religion has started accepting divided consciousness as the true form. Many of the different religions that have emerged from divided and self- oriented consciousness are flourishing only because of their ego, selfishness and aggressiveness. This very aggressiveness adopted under the cover of religion is ‘Communalism’. This aggressiveness was adopted sometimes for political reasons, sometimes for economic reasons and sometimes for social reasons. Today, the situation has deteriorated to the extent that the money power, wiles and muscle power are being used openly by different groups to impose their own so-called religious philosophies, that too in the name of civilisation and culture. The goal of religion is to eliminate discriminatory misconceptions and ignorance. But the reality is that this elimination has to be done through cognition at the individual level itself. From this point of view, the existence of the power of duality cannot be denied. Just as the existence of wave in the ocean cannot be denied, the existence of the wave of duality in the ocean of the Supreme Consciousness will have to be accepted; but keeping in mind that the real existence is not that of the wave but of the ocean.

Meinongian Issues in Contemporary Italian Philosophy

Author: Venanzio Raspa

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110321122

Category: Philosophy

Page: 266

View: 5409

The traditional and lively interest in Meinong’s philosophy and related topics among Italian philosophers gives rise to this volume of MEINONG STUDIES. As more than an introduction, Venanzio Raspa presents an enlightening historical presentation of Meinong’s reception in Italy from his lifetime to the present day. Riccardo Martinelli offers a reconstruction of the Meinongian theory of musical objects of higher order. Francesca Modenato gives the outlines of Meinong’s object theory as a theory of the pure object, separating it from ontology and associating it rather with gnoseology. From a less historical than systematic-analytic perspective, Andrea Bottani deals with incomplete objects, Mario Alai investigates the problem of propositions concerning non-existent objects, and Carola Barbero proposes a realistic theory of the emotions aroused by reading literary texts. As themes related to Meinongian ones, Alberto Voltolini discusses the concept of existence as a property, Francesco Orilia validates an intuition of Meinong by adopting an approach called 'fact infinitism', and Guido Bonino deals with Gustav Bergmann’s interpretation of Meinong’s ontology. Das traditionelle und lebhafte Interesse italienischer Philosophen an Meinongs Philosophie und damit zusammenhängenden Themen gibt Anlaß für diesen Band der MEINONG STUDIEN. Weit über die Anforderungen an ein Eineitung hinausgehend, präsentiert Venanzio Raspa eine erhellende Studie der Rezeption Meinongs in Italien von seinen Lebzeiten bis zum heutigen Tag. Riccardo Martinelli rekonstruiert Meinongs Theorie musikalischer Objekte höherer Ordnung und Francesca Modenato umreißt Meinongs Objekttheorie (als Theorie reiner Objekte), welche sie eher der Gnoseologie denn der Ontologie zuordnet. Aus einer weniger historischen als systematisch-analytischen Perspektive befassen sich Andrea Bottani mit unvollständigen Objekten, Mario Alai mit der Frage nicht-existierende Objekte betreffender Aussagen, und Carola Barbero präsentiert eine realistische Theorie von Emotionen, die durch die Lektüre literarischer Texte erweckt werden. Als Meinong-bezogene Themen diskutiert Alberto Voltolini den Begriff der Existenz als Eigenschaft, Francesco Orilia bestätigt in seinem 'Fakteninfinitismus' genannten Zugang eine Meinongsche Intuition, und Guido Bonino befaßt sich mit Gustav Bergmanns Interpretation der Meinongschen Ontologie.

Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, Part I

Author: Leszek Rutkowski,Rafal Scherer,Ryszard Tadeusiewicz,Lotfi A. Zadeh,Jacek M. Zurada

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642132073

Category: Computers

Page: 710

View: 8691

The LNAI series reports state-of-the-art results in artificial intelligence research, development, education, at a high level and in both printed and electronic form. Enjoying tight cooperation with the R&D community, with numerous individuals, as well as with prestigious organizations and societies, LNAI has grown into the most comprehensive artificial intelligence research forum available. The scope of LNAI spans the whole range of artificial intelligence and intelligent information processing including interdisciplinary topics in a variety of application fields.

The Semantic Web: Research and Applications

Author: Elena Simperl,Philipp Cimiano,Axel Polleres,Oscar Corcho,Valentina Presutti

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364230284X

Category: Computers

Page: 877

View: 7399

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2012, held in Heraklion, Crete, Greece, in May 2012. The 53 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 212 submissions. They are organized in tracks on linked open data, machine learning, natural language processing and information retrieval, ontologies, reasoning, semantic data management, services, processes, and cloud computing, social Web and Web science, in-use and industrial, digital libraries and cultural heritage, and e-government. The book also includes 13 PhD papers presented at the PhD Symposium.

The Pythagorean World

Author: Jane McDonnell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331940976X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 394

View: 8507

This book explores precisely how mathematics allows us to model and predict the behaviour of physical systems, to an amazing degree of accuracy. One of the oldest explanations for this is that, in some profound way, the structure of the world is mathematical. The ancient Pythagoreans stated that “everything is number”. However, while exploring the Pythagorean method, this book chooses to add a second principle of the universe: the mind. This work defends the proposition that mind and mathematical structure are the grounds of reality.

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology

Author: Sarah Robins,John Symons,Paco Calvo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429534825

Category: Philosophy

Page: 800

View: 9395

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, Second Edition is an invaluable guide and major reference source to the key topics, problems, concepts and debates in philosophy of psychology and is the first companion of its kind. A team of renowned international contributors provide forty-eight chapters organised into six clear parts: Historical Background to Philosophy of Psychology Psychological Explanation Cognition and Representation The Biological Basis of Psychology Perceptual Experience Personhood. The Companion covers key topics such as the origins of experimental psychology; folk psychology; behaviorism and functionalism; philosophy, psychology and neuroscience; the language of thought, modularity, nativism and representational theories of mind; consciousness and the senses; dreams, emotion and temporality; personal identity; and the philosophy of psychopathology. For the second edition six new chapters have been added to address the following important topics: belief and representation in nonhuman animals; prediction error minimzation; contemporary neuroscience; plant neurobiology; epistemic judgment; and group cognition. Essential reading for all students of philosophy of mind, science and psychology, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology will also be of interest to anyone studying psychology and its related disciplines.

Engineering and Managing Software Requirements

Author: Aybüke Aurum,Claes Wohlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540282440

Category: Computers

Page: 478

View: 8566

Requirements engineering is the process by which the requirements for software systems are gathered, analyzed, documented, and managed throughout their complete lifecycle. Traditionally it has been concerned with technical goals for, functions of, and constraints on software systems. Aurum and Wohlin, however, argue that it is no longer appropriate for software systems professionals to focus only on functional and non-functional aspects of the intended system and to somehow assume that organizational context and needs are outside their remit. Instead, they call for a broader perspective in order to gain a better understanding of the interdependencies between enterprise stakeholders, processes, and software systems, which would in turn give rise to more appropriate techniques and higher-quality systems. Following an introductory chapter that provides an exploration of key issues in requirements engineering, the book is organized in three parts. Part 1 presents surveys of state-of-the art requirements engineering process research along with critical assessments of existing models, frameworks and techniques. Part 2 addresses key areas in requirements engineering, such as market-driven requirements engineering, goal modeling, requirements ambiguity, and others. Part 3 concludes the book with articles that present empirical evidence and experiences from practices in industrial projects. Its broader perspective gives this book its distinct appeal and makes it of interest to both researchers and practitioners, not only in software engineering but also in other disciplines such as business process engineering and management science.

Advanced Concepts in Particle and Field Theory

Author: Tristan Hübsch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316368769

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1261

Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and conceptual connections to be made in these fields.