Models of My Life

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026269185X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 463

View: 7864


In this candid and witty autobiography, Nobel laureate Herbert A. Simon looks at his distinguished and varied career, continually asking himself whether (and how) what he learned as a scientist helps to explain other aspects of his life. A brilliant polymath in an age of increasing specialization, Simon is one of those rare scholars whose work defines fields of inquiry. Crossing disciplinary lines in half a dozen fields, Simon's story encompasses an explosion in the information sciences, the transformation of psychology by the information-processing paradigm, and the use of computer simulation for modeling the behavior of highly complex systems. Simon's theory of bounded rationality led to a Nobel Prize in economics, and his work on building machines that think—based on the notion that human intelligence is the rule-governed manipulation of symbols—laid conceptual foundations for the new cognitive science. Subsequently, contrasting metaphors of the maze (Simon's view) and of the mind (neural nets) have dominated the artificial intelligence debate. There is also a warm account of his successful marriage and of an unconsummated love affair, letters to his children, columns, a short story, and political and personal intrigue in academe.

Herbert A. Simon

Author: Hunter Crowther-Heyck

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801880254

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 444

View: 5881


In this informed and discerning study, Crowther-Heyck explores Simon's contributions to science and their influences on modern life and thought. For historians of science, social science, technology, and twentieth-century American intellectual and cultural history, this account of Herbert Simon's life and work provides a rich and valuable perspective. Rarely does the world see as versatile a figure as Herbert Simon. He was a Nobel laureate in economics; an accomplished political scientist; winner of a lifetime achievement award from the American Psychological Association; and founder of the department of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. In all his work in all these fields, he pursued a single goal - to create a science that could map the bounds of human reason and so enlarge its role in human affairs. Hunter Crowther-Heyck uses the career of this unique individual to examine the evolution of the social sciences after World War II, particularly Simon's creation of a new field, systems science, which joined together two distinct, powerful approaches to human behavior, the sciences of choice and control. Simon sought to develop methods by which human behavior: specifically human problem-solving, could be modeled and simulated. Regarding mind and machine as synonymous, Simon applied his models of human behavior to many other areas, from public administration and business management to artificial intelligence and the design of complex social and technical systems. In this informed and discerning study, Crowther-Heyck explores Simon's contributions to science and their influences on modern life and thought.

Models of Simon

Author: Kumaraswamy Vela Velupillai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134385463

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 200

View: 9234


Herbert Simon (1916-2001) is mostly celebrated for the theory of bounded rationality and satisficing. This book of essays on Models of Simon tackles these topics that the he broached in a professional career spanning more than 60 years. Expository material on the fundamental concepts he introduced are re-interpreted in terms of the theory of computability. This volume frames the behavioural issues of concern for economists, such as: hierarchy, causality, near-diagonal linear dynamical systems, discovery, the contrasts between the notion of heuristics, and the Church-Turing Thesis of Computability Theory. There is, consistently, an emphasis on the historical origins of the concepts Simon worked with, in emphasising Human Problem Solving and Decision Making – by rational individuals and institutions (like Organizations). The main feature of the results in the book are its emphasis on the procedural aspects of human problem solving, decision making and the remarkable way Simon harnessed many tools of mathematical logic, mathematics, cognitive sciences, economics and econometrics. This long-awaited volume is an important read for those who study economic theory and philosophy, microeconomics and political economy, as well as those interested in the great Herbert Simon’s work.

Real Role Models

Author: Joah Spearman,Louis Harrison, Jr.

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292736797

Category: Social Science

Page: 182

View: 8441


All young people need good role models, and black youth especially need positive and real examples beyond the famous and wealthy people they see on SportsCenter highlights and MTV Cribs. While success as a celebrity athlete or entertainer may seem like an achievable dream, the reality is that young African Americans have a much greater chance of succeeding in the professions through education and hard work—and a mentor to show them the path. Real Role Models introduces high school and college-age African Americans to twenty-three black professionals who have achieved a high level of success in their chosen fields and who tell their stories to inspire young people to pursue a professional career and do the work necessary to achieve their dreams. Some of the individuals profiled by Joah Spearman and Louis Harrison, Jr., include Leonard Pitts, Pulitzer Prize–winning columnist for the Miami Herald; Melody Barnes, Director of the White House Domestic Policy Council; Danyel Smith, editor-in-chief of Vibe; and Dr. Tim George, Chief of Pediatric Neuroscience at Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas. They and other interviewees describe their backgrounds, career paths, and desire to give back by helping others reach their goals. Representing a wide range of occupations, these real role models prove to African American youths that a whole world of successful, rewarding careers awaits them. The Real Role Models Rufus Cormier, JD, Partner at the Baker Botts Law Firm, Houston, Texas Melody Barnes, Director of the White House Domestic Policy Council, Washington, D.C. Eric Motley, PhD, Managing Director of the Aspen Institute's Henry Crown Fellowship Program, Aspen, Colorado James McIntyre, Spokesman for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. Tracie Hall, Assistant Dean and Librarian at Dominican University, River Forest, Illinois Kimberlydawn Wisdom, MD, Surgeon General of the State of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan Timothy George, MD, Chief of Pediatric Neuroscience at Dell Children's Medical Center, Austin, Texas Victoria Holloway Barbosa, MD, Ethnic Dermatologist and Former Executive for L'Oreal, Chicago, Illinois Bill Douglas, White House Correspondent for McClatchy Newspapers, Washington, D.C. Leonard Pitts, Jr., Columnist for the Miami Herald, Miami, Florida Danyel Smith, Editor of Vibe Magazine, New York, New York Ed Stewart, Managing Director of External Communications for Delta Airlines, Atlanta, Georgia Lynn Tyson, Vice President of Investor Relations for Dell, Austin, Texas Willie Miles, Jr., Founder and CEO of Miles Wealth Management, Houston, Texas Horace Allen, Founder and CEO of TeamPact, Atlanta, Georgia Deavra Daughtry, President and CEO of Excellent Care Management, Houston, Texas Je'Caryous Johnson, Founder and CEO of I'm Ready Productions, Houston, Texas Steve Jones, Cofounder of a graphic design company, Oakland, California Isiah Warner, PhD, Chemistry Professor at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana Gloria Ladson-Billings, PhD, Professor of Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Bernard Muir, Athletic Director at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. Craig Littlepage, Athletic Director at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Beverly Kearney, Women's Track Coach at the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas

Critical Fabulations

Author: Daniela K Rosner

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262346419

Category: Design

Page: 216

View: 1644


A proposal to redefine design in a way that not only challenges the field's dominant paradigms but also changes the practice of design itself. In Critical Fabulations, Daniela Rosner proposes redefining design as investigative and activist, personal and culturally situated, responsive and responsible. Challenging the field's dominant paradigms and reinterpreting its history, Rosner wants to change the way we historicize the practice, reworking it from the inside. Focusing on the development of computational systems, she takes on powerful narratives of innovation and technology shaped by the professional expertise that has become integral to the field's mounting status within the new industrial economy. To do so, she intervenes in legacies of design, expanding what is considered “design” to include long-silenced narratives of practice, and enhancing existing design methodologies based on these rediscovered inheritances. Drawing on discourses of feminist technoscience, she examines craftwork's contributions to computing innovation—how craftwork becomes hardware manufacturing, and how hardware manufacturing becomes craftwork. She reclaims, for example, NASA's “Little Old Ladies,” the women who built information storage for the Apollo missions by weaving wires through magnetized metal rings. Mixing history, theory, personal experience, and case studies, Rosner reweaves fibers of technoscience by slowly reworking the methods and margins of design. She suggests critical fabulations as ways of telling stories that awaken alternative histories, and offers a set of techniques and orientations for fabulating its future. Critical Fabulations shows how design's hidden inheritances open different possibilities for practice.

Models of Achievement

Author: Agnes N. O'Connell

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135659206

Category: Psychology

Page: 456

View: 5409


This outstanding book contains inspiring stories of late 20th century women who broke new ground in psychological knowledge and its applications. The lives and careers of 53 women are examined within social and historical contexts using three levels of analysis--the individual, the group, and the universal. The thoughtful autobiographies and the perceptive, integrative analyses increase understanding of the personal and professional development of these women, provide insights into their patterns of achievement, and illuminate new ways of thinking about and perceiving women. This extraordinary book is a valuable resource for libraries and researchers, provides knowledge and inspiration for a wide range of readers, and is an excellent supplementary text for courses in the psychology of women, history of psychology, lifespan development, career development, and women's studies.

American Political Scientists

Author: Glenn H. Utter,Charles Lockhart

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 031331957X

Category: Political Science

Page: 516

View: 7895


Profiles nearly two hundred important contributors to the field of American political science, offering brief biographies and commentary on their works and theoretical arguments.

The Sciences of the Artificial, reissue of the third edition with a new introduction by John Laird

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262354756

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 9526


Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence in the expanded and updated third edition from 1996, with a new introduction by John E. Laird. Herbert Simon's classic and influential The Sciences of the Artificial declares definitively that there can be a science not only of natural phenomena but also of what is artificial. Exploring the commonalities of artificial systems, including economic systems, the business firm, artificial intelligence, complex engineering projects, and social plans, Simon argues that designed systems are a valid field of study, and he proposes a science of design. For this third edition, originally published in 1996, Simon added new material that takes into account advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. Simon won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1978 for his research into the decision-making process within economic organizations and the Turing Award (considered by some the computer science equivalent to the Nobel) with Allen Newell in 1975 for contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing. The Sciences of the Artificial distills the essence of Simon's thought accessibly and coherently. This reissue of the third edition makes a pioneering work available to a new audience.

Feminism & Autobiography

Author: Tess Coslett,Celia Lury,Penny Summerfield

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134573618

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 4632


Featuring essays by leading feminist scholars from a variety of disciplines, this key text explores the latest developments in autobiographical studies. The collection is structured around the inter-linked concepts of genre, inter-subjectivity and memory. Whilst exemplifying the very different levels of autobiographical activity going on in feminist studies, the contributions chart a movement from autobiography as genre to autobiography as cultural practice, and from the analysis of autobiographical texts to a preoccupation with autobiography as method.