The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems

Author: Charles J. Lada,N.D. Kylafis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792359097

Category: Science

Page: 756

View: 2019

The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems is a collection of tutorial reviews that critically and systematically discuss the current state of our knowledge of star formation and early stellar evolution, from the genesis of giant molecular clouds to the birth of young stars and their surrounding planetary systems. The chapters are written at the graduate student level by a group of twenty internationally distinguished scientists. The emphasis is on fundamentals rather than recent research results. The book thus provides a rigorous treatment of the basic empirical and theoretical foundations of modern star formation research. The book is a unique reference, based on the authors' own pioneering research. Readership: Primary or supplementary text for graduate courses on star formation. Basic reference for professional scientists needing a solid background in the area.

The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems

Author: Charles J. Lada,N.D. Kylafis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401145091

Category: Science

Page: 718

View: 8145

A few years after the publication of The Physics of Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution, we received a request from the publisher for an up dated second edition of this popular reference book. As originally intended, the volume had proved to be a useful "text" book for graduate astronomy courses and seminars which dealt with topics related to stellar origins. The book was based on a series of lectures delivered by a distinguished group of leading researchers at a NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) held in May 1990 on the island of Crete, Greece. The primary goal of the ASI was in fact to produce a book which "would simultaneously provide a broad and systematic overview of, as well as a rigorous introduction to, the fun damental physics and astronomy at the heart of modern research in star formation and early stellar evolution. " However, by 1995 concern had arisen among those who used the text as a reference for graduate seminars and courses that the book would need to be updated to stay abreast of the discoveries and progress in this rapidly evolving field. After some discussion we concluded that a new edition of the book was warranted and that the goal of producing a new edition would be best accomplished by organizing a second ASI in Crete to review the progress in star formation research.

Polarimetry of Stars and Planetary Systems

Author: Ludmilla Kolokolova

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107043905

Category: Science

Page: 507

View: 7961

A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art techniques, models and research methods in modern astronomical polarimetry.

Strategy for the Detection and Study of Other Planetary Systems and Extrasolar Planetary Materials

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309041937

Category: Science

Page: 95

View: 2923

This volume addresses a new opportunity in the planetary sciencesâ€"to extend our exploration outward to discover and study planetary systems that may have formed or are forming around other stars. It concludes that a coordinated program of astronomical observation, laboratory research, theoretical development, and understanding of the dynamics and origins of whatever may be found would be a technologically feasible and potentially richly rewarding extension of the study of bodies within the solar system.

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life

Author: Lluis Ribas de Pouplana

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387268871

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 5631

Early Thoughts on RNA and the Origin of Life The full impact of the essential role of the nucleic acids in biological systems was forcefully demonstrated by the research community in the 1950s. Although Avery and his collaborators had identified DNA as the genetic material responsible for the transformation of bacteria in 1944, it was not until the early 1950s that the Hershey-Chase experiments provided a more direct demonstration of this role. Finally, the structural DNA double helix proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 clearly created a structural frame work for the role of DNA as both information carrier and as a molecule that could undergo the necessary replication needed for daughter cells. Research continued by Kornberg and his colleagues in the mid-1950s emphasized the biochemistry and enzymology of DNA replication. At the same time, there was a growing interest in the role of RNA. The 1956 dis covery by David Davies and myself showed that polyadenylic acid and polyuridylic acid could form a double-helical RNA molecule but that it differed somewhat from DN A A large number of experiments were subsequendy carried out with synthetic polyribonucleotides which illustrated that RNA could form even more complicated helical structures in which the specificity of hydrogen bonding was the key element in determining the molecular conformation. Finally, in I960,1 could show that it was possible to make a hybrid helix.

The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System

Author: Michael M. Woolfson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420033359

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 2286

The origin of the solar system has been a matter of speculation for many centuries, and since the time of Newton it has been possible to apply scientific principles to the problem. A succession of theories, starting with that of Pierre Laplace in 1796, has gained general acceptance, only to fall from favor due to its contradiction in some basic scientific principle or new heavenly observation. Modern observations by spacecraft of the solar system, the stars, and extra-solar planetary systems continuously provide new information that may be helpful in finding a plausible theory as well as present new constraints for any such theory to satisfy. The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System begins by describing historical (pre-1950) theories and illustrating why they became unacceptable. The main part of the book critically examines five extant theories, including the current paradigm, the solar nebula theory, to determine how well they fit with accepted scientific principles and observations. This analysis shows that the solar nebula theory satisfies the principles and observational constraints no better than its predecessors. The capture theory put forward by the author fares better and also indicates an initial scenario leading to a causal series of events that explain all the major features of the solar system.

On the Origin of Planets

Author: Michael M Woolfson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908977922

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 8916

The book begins with a historical review of four major theories for the origin of the Solar System in particular, or of planets in general, which highlight the major problems that need to be solved by any plausible theory. In many theories, including that which form the major theme of this book, the formation of planets and stars is intimately linked, so four chapters are devoted to the processes that can be described as the birth, life and death of stars. Recent observations that have revealed the existence of planets around many Sun-like stars are described in detail, followed by a clear exposition of the Capture Theory for the origin of planets. Many aspects of this theory are illustrated with sophisticated computer modelling that convincingly demonstrates the plausibility of the theory. The Capture Theory is in complete accord with all observations, including the estimate it gives for the proportion of Sun-like stars with planets. It is the only theory that sits comfortably with all present observational and theoretical constraints. The general theory of planet formation does not explain the detailed structure of the Solar System. An early postulated collision of two major planets is shown to explain many disparate features of the Solar System — the nature of the terrestrial planets, surface features of the Moon and its relationship with Earth, asteroids, comets and dwarf planets, the relationship between Neptune, Triton and Pluto and the characteristics of meteorites, including the isotopic anomalies found in them. The postulate of a planetary collision is given support by a 2009 NASA observation of the residue of such an event around a distant young star. Contents:Observations of StarsProducing Protostars — Embryonic StarsThe Life and Death of a StarThe Evolution of a Galactic ClusterExoplanets — Planets Around Other StarsThe Formation of Planets: The Capture TheoryOrbital EvolutionThe Frequency of Planetary SystemsSatellite FormationFeatures of the Solar SystemInteractions Between PlanetsThe MoonMars and MercuryNeptune, Triton and PlutoDwarf Planets, Asteroids, Comets and the Kuiper BeltMeteorites: Their Physical and Chemical PropertiesIsotopic Anomalies in MeteoritesOverview and Conclusions Readership: Undergraduates to researchers and also of general interest. Keywords:Planets: Solar SystemKey Features:There are no competing titlesThe structure of the book, with main chapters and appendices, should make it accessible and of interest to readers of different backgroundsThe theory it deals with is described in fine detail — a model of presentation inspired by On The Origin of SpeciesReviews:“The first quarter of the presentation is a masterful summary of the history of the speculation about the origin of the sun and planets, a description of the properties of stars and star clusters, and an introduction to the exciting and developing field of exoplanets, objects that orbit distant stars … The presentation is primarily qualitative, with the supporting physical principles usefully relegated to an extensive suite of appendixes … the level is suitable for the advanced undergraduate.”CHOICE “This book describes the history and the problem of planetary formation question in more complete and attractive detail. In an unusual but excellent feature, the basic physics needed at each stage is broken out into a long series of appendices, 39 in all.”Contemporary Physics

Planetary and Interstellar Processes Relevant to the Origins of Life

Author: D.C.B. Whittet

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792345978

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 801

These are exciting times for exobiology. The ubiquity of organic molecules in interstellar clouds, comets and asteroids strongly supports a cosmic perspective on the origin of life. Data from both ground-based telescopes and the recently launched Infrared Space Observatory are providing new insight into the complexity of carbon-based chemistry beyond the Earth. Meteorites give us solid evidence for extraterrestrial amino acids, and putative fossil evidence for life in a 3.6 billion-year-old Martian meteorite hints that life in our system might not be the sole prerogative of the Earth. Giant planets have now been discovered orbiting other stars, and although such planets seem unlikely to be habitable themselves, their existence strongly suggests what many astronomers have long believed - that planetary systems are commonplace. All these topics are reviewed in this volume by active researchers. The level is appropriate for graduate students in astronomy, biology, chemistry, earth sciences, physics, and related disciplines. It will also provide a valuable source of reference for active researchers in these fields.